The fallopian tubes are necessary for the egg to travel from the ovary to the uterus. Sperm meet the egg in the fallopian tube and fertilization occurs. Women with tubal disease or abnormalities of their tubes will often have blockage or damage to their fallopian tubes so that the egg either cannot travel to the uterus or the sperm cannot meet the egg. Sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia can cause blockages in the tubes or make the tubes not easily traveled by sperm or eggs. Some women have had surgeries that have led to removal of one or both tubes.
On occasion, women who have had their fallopian tubes “tied” as a means of birth control wish to reverse that surgery. Although tubal ligation reversal can be done with some success, there are many cases where fertility is not restored. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the treatment option recommended most often for women with tubal disease.