Some women may have difficulty becoming pregnant or have increased risks of complications in pregnancy if their uterus is misshapen or have fibroids or polyps in its cavity. Women can be born with abnormalities in the shape of the uterus. Some abnormalities can be corrected with the use of surgery and some not. Uterine septums can be associated with infertility and pregnancy loss. It is often recommended that they be removed surgically in some patients. Fibroids that are affecting the cavity of the uterus are often removed in those women who are affected by recurrent pregnancy loss and/or difficulty getting pregnant. Polyps are smaller common growths in the uterine cavity. Sometimes it is recommended they be removed.

Serious pelvic infections can leave both the uterus and the fallopian tubes badly damaged. A history of chlamydia can raise concern that it may have affected the patency or functionality of the fallopian tubes. However, if the infection has been treated early with antibiotics,damage to the tubes can be limited.

Some women can have evidence of scarring in their uterus. It is thought that this can affect the ability of an embryo to implant or increase the risk of early miscarriage. Those women who are risk for this are ones that have a history of many D and C’s (dilatation and curettage) or other types of invasive surgeries in the cavity of their uterus.